Persulfates

Oxidants and initiators boost chemical performance

Persulfates are strong oxidants, have excellent shelf life when stored properly, and are economical to use. These properties make persulfates suitable for a variety of applications. The polymer industry uses aqueous solutions of persulfates as initiators in the polymerization of latex and synthetic rubber. The electronics industry considers sodium persulfate an efficient microetchant in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. The following examples further illustrate the chemical versatility of persulfates.

Applications for persulfates

Oxidation processes

Circuit board

Surface preparation

The oxidation power of persulfates is used to clean and microetch a variety of printed circuit board substrates. Persulfates are important oxidants in plating and coating processes. They are also etchants for nickel, titanium, and zinc alloys. Persulfates are used to clean and mill aluminum, brass, copper, and many other metal surfaces prior to plating or adhesive bonding. Persulfates are suitable for cleaning and activation of carbon and charcoal before and after their use as absorbents.

Bleached hair

Cosmetics

The cosmetic industry has developed formulations which use persulfates to boost hair bleaching performance.

Pharmacy

Organic synthesis

Persulfates are oxidizing agents in the preparation of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, quinones, and a variety of other compounds. The pharmaceutical industry uses sodium persulfate as a reagent in the preparation of antibiotics.

Further applications

Toner

Adhesives, inks, pigments and dispersions

Persulfates are used in the preparation of adhesive films and metal bonding adhesives as well as to graft substrates to polymers (for example, carbon black to sodium acrylate). Furthermore persulfates serve the preparation of dispersants for ink jetting and toner formulations.

Gravel and san pit open mining

Gas, oil and mining

In enhanced oil recovery, persulfates are used "down hole" for gel forming and breaking. In the mining industry persulfates can be used in nickel and cobalt separation processes.

Color print

Photography, pulp and paper

Persulfates are used in many photographic applications, including bleaching solutions, solution regeneration, equipment cleaning, and wastewater treatment. Persulfates are applied in the sizing of paper, preparation of binders and coatings, and production of special papers. An activated alkali metal persulfate effectively repulps neutral/ alkaline wet-strength broke and decolorizes dyes and optical brightener.

Tissue rolls

Peroxymonosulfates and textiles

We developed a process using ammonium and sodium persulfates to prepare peroxymonosulfate solutions. This patented process allows fast, efficient, on-site production of an alternative to Caro's acid and potassium caroate. Ammonium and sodium persulfates are used in the desizing and bleaching of textiles and the development of dyestuffs.

Maize field

Environmental

Persulfates are very strong oxidants, have excellent shelf life when stored properly, and are economical to use. These properties make persulfates suitable for a variety of environmental applications, such as soil remediation and wastewater/groundwater cleanup.

Polymerization

Truck tire

Plastics and rubber

Ammonium, potassium, and sodium persulfates are used as initiators for emulsion polymerization reactions in the preparation of acrylics, polyvinyl chlorides, polystyrenes, and neoprene. They are used as polymerization initiators in the manufacture of synthetic rubber (styrene butadiene and isoprene) for automobile and truck tires. Persulfate initiation is used to prepare latex polymers for paints, coatings, and carpet backing.

Modern kitchen

Inorganic chemicals, minerals and structural materials

Persulfates are used as initiators in polymeric concrete formulations. They are also initiators for the polymeric coating of graphite filaments.

Open cast mining

Soil stabilization 

Ammonium persulfate is used as a curing agent in chemical grout systems used to stabilize soil near dams, tunnels, and buildings.

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