Persulfates for soil and groundwater remediation

KLOZUR® KP

KLOZUR® KP is an environmentally safe extended release potassium persulfate that has the same oxidizing power as sodium persulfate, but has a much lower solubility, allowing it to maintain a low persulfate concentration in the subsurface.

KLOZUR® KP is an extended release reagent for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) based on environmental grade potassium persulfate.

The low solubility and extended release of KLOZUR® KP can be used for a number of applications not traditionally considered for chemical oxidation, including permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), treatment of less permeable soils, and contaminated groundwater plumes.

KLOZUR® KP is well suited for:

  • Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs)
  • Low permeable solids
  • Recalcitrant compounds

KEY BENEFITS

  • Powerful multi-radical attack
  • Can be applied as a solid or as part of a slurry mixture
  • Well suited toward applications such as permeable reactive barriers
  • Extended lifetime in the subsurface

EXAMPLE CONTAMINANTS

  • Chlorinated ethenes, ethanes and methanes
  • Petroleum hydrocarbons
  • Pesticides
  • Aqueous phase contaminants such as MTBE, vinyl chloride, BTEX, 1,4-dioxane

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

  • Physical emplacement or construction
  • Soil blending
  • Hydraulic slurry injection
  • Pneumatic solid phase injection

TECHNOLOGY: IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is the introduction of an oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of oxidizing contaminants in soil and groundwater. ISCO is ideal for the elimination of contaminant concentrations in source zones and hot spots.

Technical Documents

Get a detailed overview of extended-release potassium persulfate, including the theory behind extended-release, recommended dosage, and potential applications.

As KLOZUR® persulfate is a very strong oxidant, and its solutions may become very acidic (pH ≤2), persulfate solutions may result in a corrosive environment for many metals and materials.

Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are environmental contaminants of concern that have been widely used as fuel oxygenates and octane boosters.

KLOZUR® sodium persulfate is a stable, highly soluble, crystalline material, which upon activation is capable of oxidizing a broad range of recalcitrant compounds. 

KLOZUR® KP Application Guides

An overview of the guidelines and use of common alkaline sources for KLOZUR® SP and KLOZUR® KP activation.

Soil mixing and in situ stabilization design considerations and guidelines.

An overview of application guidelines for KLOZUR® KP.

KLOZUR® KP Webinars

Drew Baird and Chapman Ross of FRx and Brant Smith of Evonik present the use of controlled hydraulic fracturing to produce KLOZUR® KP slurry. 

Dr. Brant Smith introduces  KLOZUR® KP, a new addition to our KLOZUR® product portfolio of powerful oxidants.

Since its introduction in 2016, KLOZUR® KP has been bench tested and applied at numerous sites around the world. With its unique extended release properties, KLOZUR® KP is ideal for treating contaminants in the highly soluble aqueous phase.

Dr. Brant Smith of PeroxyChem, Professor Dan Cassidy of Western Michigan University, and Tom Simpkin and Mike Perlmutter of CH2M present strategies involving in situ mixing to produce alkali-activated persulfate.

Evonik’s laboratory created the KLOZUR® field test kit to provide a quick and reliable measurement of persulfate in the field.

There are two different kits available, depending on the activation method used. Each kit is capable of running ten tests and has a measurement range of 1g/L to 100g/L, with a theoretical accuracy of ±1g/L and ±2g/L respectively.

Related documents on KLOZUR®

Further information