Persulfates for soil and groundwater remediation

GEOFORM® Reagents

GEOFORM® Biogeochemical Reagents are designed to provide the building blocks needed to promote biogeochemical reactions in situ. GEOFORM® provides a source of sulfate, iron, electron donors, pH buffers and nutrients to promote mechanisms for dehalogenation through enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, abiotic degradation and the formation of reactive minerals.

The component ratios have been optimized to maximize the formation of reactive iron sulfide minerals that provide an expanded surface area for abiotic degradation pathways. In addition, the amount of electron donor can be adjusted based on site specific geochemistry. GEOFORM® can be used for the treatment of groundwater and saturated soil impacted by persistent halogenated compounds and will also immobilize many heavy metals.

GEOFORM® is available in two formulations – a fully soluble formulation for ease of injection and a solid formulation for extended release. 

  • GEOFORM® Soluble Mix is a proprietary blend of sulfate and ferrous iron that when combined with ELS® organic carbon products generates reactive minerals in situ
  • Remains fully in solution during mixing and injection
  • Ideal for plume and hot-spot treatment 
  • Longevity of 2-3 years 
  • Application via injection wells, infiltration networks or direct push 
  • GEOFORM® Extended Release is formulated with a long-lasting source of hydrogen donor and zero valent iron (ZVI) for continued rejuvenation of iron sulfide minerals 
  • Ideal for Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and source area treatment 
  • Longevity of 5-10 years 
  • Application via direct push, hydraulic or pneumatic fracturing or soil mixing  



Treatment Mechanisms

                                       Abiotic Reduction

Biotic Reduction          Reductive            ZVI


Soluble sulfate and ferrous iron mix added to an emulsified organic carbon substrate

               x                              x                                               

Extended Release

Extended release organic carbon, sulfate ferrous iron, micro-scale, ZVI

               x                              x                       x


  • Multiple mechanisms for contaminant degradation
  • Promotes higher reaction rates
  • Treats mixed plumes contaminated with CVOCs and heavy metals
  • Improved distribution properties/reactive surface area
  • Minimal generation of daughter products
  • Improved longevity
  • pH balanced


  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Energetic compounds
  • Most pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate compounds

GEOFORM® application guides

We offer mixing guidelines for the preparation of GEOFORM® Soluble prior to distribution into the treatment zone. The product is suitable for application through typical wells by direct push injection or other methods.

GEOFORM® webinars

Dan Leigh will present the fundamentals of the basic biological and geochemical processes triggered by reductive technologies for in situ treatment of chlorinated organics and metals in groundwater and surface water. He will explain in detail how these processes synergistically generate reactive iron sulfide minerals (FeS) that bind many toxic metals and increase the effectiveness of zero-valent iron.

Biological (enhanced reductive dechlorination; ERD) and abiotic (in situ chemical reduction; ISCR) processes have been used in groundwater to degrade CVOCs in situ. We explain how biological and chemical treatment processes can be optimized through the use of GEOFORM®.

Contact and further information