White Papers


Here you will find a range of information in the form of white papers on topics related to the use of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) for soil and groundwater. The topics cover a variety of technical issues relevant to ISCO, such as persulfate activation methods, treatment of emerging contaminants, fate of residual sulfate, interaction of ISCO with microbial populations, and impacts on groundwater quality. 

ISCO-ISS is a combination of two well established and successful remedial technologies: In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) and In situ Stabilization and Solidification (ISS). These two technologies can be combined into a single application.

KLOZUR® activated persulfate is a powerful oxidizing agent that can oxidize and destroy many organic contaminants. This produces the by-product sulfate. We present the effects of sulfate on groundwater and subsequent bioremediation processes.

We explain the new pollutant 1,4-dioxane (referred to here as dioxane) and its effects on the environment. In addition, the legal requirements for dioxane and the effective use of KLOZUR® activated persulfate for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with dioxane are discussed.

Chemical oxidation with activated persulfate can be successfully used to remove non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. Many factors need to be considered during remediation. We present the treatment of NAPLs by chemical oxidation with KLOZUR® activated persulfate.

We explain the effects of oxidation by activated persulfate and its impact on microbial populations. Even with subsequent anaerobic bioremediation, the benefits of reduced impurities and increased naturally dissolved organics will more than offset the effects of increased oxygen levels on the anaerobic population.

The main by-product of the chemical oxidation of pollutants of concern with KLOZUR® persulfate is sulfate. Here we discuss the effects of sulfate residues. 

The use of activated persulfate for in situ or ex situ treatment of soils contaminated with
PCB contaminated soils has been explored as an alternative to the standard chlorination process of excavation and removal.

An advantage of using activated persulfate for in situ chemical oxidation of contaminants of concern is its relative longevity and stability in the subsurface groundwater environment between the persulfate and the contaminants, resulting in an increase in the zones of influence of the oxidant. 

KLOZUR® ERH can be an effective approach to remediate a contaminated site to make it clean. In situ thermal desorption and thermal decomposition methods have been successfully used to treat volatile and non-volatile contaminants by either volatilizing the contaminants from the soil and groundwater and capturing them in a vapor extraction system, or by thermally decomposing them in situ.

We discuss the benefits of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) to optimize deployment and monitor performance of ISCO applications.

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has published a new rule that establishes risk-based performance standards for the security of the nation's chemical facilities. The implications of this rule for the purchase, storage, and use of environmental chemicals and products are explored.

The issue is the measurement of persulfate in groundwater. In this context, the determination of persulfate concentration in groundwater after in-situ application is crucial for the determination of parameters such as the achieved persulfate radius of influence (ROI) and the persulfate residence time in the contaminated zone. 

Professor Neil Thomson explains the concept of natural oxidant interaction as a tool to better understand oxidant requirements at a given site. Neil's research interests focus on the environmental behavior of contaminants in subsurface systems, including immiscible fluids, vapors, and pathogens, the development and application of simulation tools, and the development and evaluation of soil and groundwater remediation technologies.

Frank Sessa of the Environmental Solutions Team has expertise in "chemical oxidation" and "aerobic bioremediation" and explains how to measure oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). 

We provide safety information for handling peroxides. With the right precautions, peroxygens have been safe to use for soil and groundwater remediation for many years. 

This white paper features the problematic class of contaminants, specifically chlorinated ethanes and 1,1,1-TCA, and how to deal with them. Guest authors Michael Marley and Dr. Brant Smith of XDD discuss the treatment of these contaminants.

We make you understand the physical and chemical properties of KLOZUR SP. This is crucial in order to safely and successfully prepare persulfate solutions for injection.

Determining the oxidant requirement of KLOZUR® persulfate for a particular site is critical and is the focus of this issue.