Persulfates for soil and groundwater remediation


KLOZUR® SP is a highly soluble, easy-to-use, environmental grade sodium persulfate. Over the past decade, KLOZUR® SP has established a long track record of success and provides an unmatched combination of oxidative power and control that can be delivered both safely and cost effectively.

KLOZUR® SP is the oxidant of choice for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), because of its ability to treat a wide range of contaminants including chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons and PAHs. 

Successful field applications of KLOZUR® SP have been performed globally. These applications demonstrate the ability of KLOZUR® activated persulfate to treat diverse organic contaminants of concern including: chlorinated ethenes, chlorinated ethanes, chlorinated methanes, BTEX, MTBE, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, 1,4-dioxane and pesticides.

KLOZUR® SP is well suited for:

  • Source areas
  • Highly contaminated soils
  • Recalcitrant compounds


  • Powerful multi-radical attack
  • Rapid destruction of recalcitrant compounds
  • Flexible activation based on site conditions
  • Highly soluble (up to 40 wt%)
  • Persistent in the subsurface


  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Petroleum
  • PAHs


  • Direct push injection
  • Fixed well injection
  • Soil blending


In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is the introduction of an oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of oxidizing contaminants in soil and groundwater. ISCO is ideal for the elimination of contaminant concentrations in source zones and hot spots.

Technical Documents

ISCO-ISS is a combination of two well established and successful remedial technologies: In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) and In situ Stabilization and Solidification (ISS). These two technologies can be combined into a single application.

Combinations of KLOZUR® SP and KLOZUR® Caustic (25% environmental grade sodium hydroxide solution) may form crystalline precipitates below their individual solubility limits due to common ion effects between the two salts.

As KLOZUR® persulfate is a very strong oxidant, and its solutions may become very acidic (pH ≤2), persulfate solutions may result in a corrosive environment for many metals and materials.

Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are environmental contaminants of concern that have been widely used as fuel oxygenates and octane boosters.

KLOZUR® sodium persulfate is a stable, highly soluble, crystalline material, which upon activation is capable of oxidizing a broad range of recalcitrant compounds. 

KLOZUR® SP application guides

An overview of the guidelines and use of common alkaline sources for the activation of KLOZUR® SP and KLOZUR® KP.

General guidelines for product batching, injection strategies, soil mixing, and safety and handling.

Soil mixing and in situ stabilization design considerations and guidelines.

KLOZUR® SP webinars

Vipul Srivastava/Burns & McDonnell, Joel Parker/Hamp Mathews & Associates, and Brant Smith/Evonik will present on design strategies and applications for combining In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO).

Dr. Brant Smith reports on the successful treatment of 1,4-dioxane and other common contaminants with activated KLOZUR® persulfate. 1,4-Dioxane has proven to be a significant contaminant at many sites.

Dr. Brant Smith from Evonik, Professor Dan Cassidy from Western Michigan University, and Tom Simpkin and Mike Perlmutter from CH2M will present strategies using in situ mixing to apply alkaline activated persulfate.

Dr. Brant Smith discusses critical elements for designing an activated KLOZUR® persulfate field application, including critical design parameters, scaling of laboratory-scale results, and various methods for estimating oxidant and activator doses.

Dr. Brant Smith presents strategies for using chemical oxidation to treat highly contaminated sites, highlighting the key elements of oxidant chemistry and the major treatment methods.

Dr. Brant Smith will provide an overview of critical aspects of using alkaline activated Klozur® persulfate in the field. The webinar will provide the chemical fundamentals of alkaline activated persulfate and case studies of the successful destruction of contaminants under field conditions ranging from carbon tetrachloride to petroleum hydrocarbons.

Dr. Brant Smith discusses the monitoring programs required for a KLOZUR® persulfate remediation approach and best practices for evaluating effectiveness.

Brianna Desjardins and Brant Smith review the laboratory-scale testing that our Environmental Solutions Laboratory typically performs for EHC® Reagent, ELS™ Microemulsion, Klozur® persulfate, MetaFix® Reagent, and hydrogen peroxide.

Evonik’s laboratory created the KLOZUR® field test kit to provide a quick and reliable measurement of persulfate in the field.

There are two different kits available, depending on the activation method used. Each kit is capable of running ten tests and has a measurement range of 1g/L to 100g/L, with a theoretical accuracy of ±1g/L and ±2g/L respectively.

Related documents on KLOZUR®

Further information