Persulfates for soil and groundwater remediation


KLOZUR® SP is a highly soluble, easy-to-use, environmental grade sodium persulfate. Over the past decade, KLOZUR® SP has established a long track record of success and provides an unmatched combination of oxidative power and control that can be delivered both safely and cost effectively for soil remediation and groundwater cleanup activities.

KLOZUR® SP is the oxidant of choice for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), because of its ability to treat a wide range of contaminants including chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons and PAHs in soil and groundwater. 

Successful field applications of KLOZUR® SP have been performed globally. These applications demonstrate the ability of KLOZUR® activated persulfate to treat diverse organic contaminants of concern including chlorinated ethenes, chlorinated ethanes, chlorinated methanes, BTEX, MTBE, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, 1,4-dioxane and pesticides.

KLOZUR® SP is well suited for:

  • Source areas and hotspots
  • Highly contaminated soils
  • Recalcitrant compounds in soil and groundwater


  • Powerful multi-radical attack
  • Rapid destruction of recalcitrant compounds
  • Flexible activation based on site conditions
  • Highly soluble (up to 40 wt%)
  • Persistent in the subsurface of soil


  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Petroleum
  • PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) 


  • Direct push injection
  • Fixed well injection
  • Soil blending


In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is the introduction of an oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of oxidizing contaminants in soil and groundwater. ISCO is ideal for the elimination of contaminant concentrations in source zones and hot spots.

In situ stabilization and solidification (ISS)

In situ stabilization and solidification (ISS), also known as soil mixing, is an environmental remediation technology for soil, sediment, and groundwater remediation that immobilizes and solidifies contaminants in the final solidified soil structure.

Combined in situ chemical oxidation and stabilization

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and in situ stabilization and solidification (ISS) can be combined in a single application to use two different mechanisms in one application for addressing contaminants of concern in soil and groundwater.

Technical Documents

ISCO-ISS is a combination of two well-established and successful soil and groundwater remediation technologies: In situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) and In situ Stabilization and Solidification (ISS). These two technologies can be combined in a single application to provide two distinct mechanisms for addressing contaminants of concern.

Combinations of KLOZUR® SP and KLOZUR® Caustic (25% environmental grade sodium hydroxide solution) may form crystalline precipitates below their individual solubility limits due to common ion effects between the two salts.

As KLOZUR® persulfate is a very strong oxidant, and its solutions may become very acidic (pH ≤2), remediation solutions containing persulfates can result in a corrosive environment for many metals and materials. This technical bulletin presents the results of corrosion studies using persulfate and activated persulfate solutions and provides guidance on potentially compatible materials.

Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are environmental contaminants of concern that have been widely used as fuel oxygenates and octane boosters. The environmental fate and transport of MTBE and TBA differs from that of other common gasoline components. Due to the mobility of the compounds, aggressive investigation and treatment is often recommended. Activated KLOZUR® persulfate is an aggressive treatment technology that has been successfully used to treat MTBE and TBA.

KLOZUR® sodium persulfate is a stable, highly soluble, crystalline material, which upon activation is capable of oxidizing a broad range of recalcitrant compounds. This bulletin covers the basic safe handling, use and storage of KLOZUR® persulfate. 

KLOZUR® SP application guides

We present an overview of the guidelines and the use of common alkaline sources for the activation of KLOZUR® SP and KLOZUR® KP.

This document will provide general guidelines for product batching, injection strategies, soil mixing, and safety and handling.

This document discusses the soil mixing strategies, the in situ stabilization design considerations, and guidelines.

KLOZUR® SP webinars

Vipul Srivastava/Burns & McDonnell, Joel Parker/Hamp Mathews & Associates, and Brant Smith/Evonik will present on design strategies and applications for combining in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO).

Dr. Brant Smith reports on the successful treatment of 1,4-dioxane and other common contaminants in soil and groundwater with activated KLOZUR® persulfate. 1,4-dioxane has proven to be a significant contaminant at many sites.

Dr. Brant Smith from Evonik, Professor Dan Cassidy from Western Michigan University, and Tom Simpkin and Mike Perlmutter from CH2M will present strategies using in situ mixing to apply alkaline activated persulfate in soil.

Dr. Brant Smith discusses critical elements for designing an activated KLOZUR® persulfate field application, including critical design parameters, scaling of laboratory-scale results, and various methods for estimating oxidant and activator doses.

Dr. Brant Smith presents strategies for using chemical oxidation to treat soil and groundwater of highly contaminated sites, highlighting the key elements of oxidant chemistry and the major treatment methods.

Dr. Brant Smith will provide an overview of critical aspects of using alkaline activated KLOZUR® persulfate in the field. The webinar will provide the chemical fundamentals of alkaline activated persulfate and case studies of the successful destruction of contaminants in soil and groundwater under field conditions ranging from carbon tetrachloride to petroleum hydrocarbons.

Dr. Brant Smith discusses the monitoring programs required for a KLOZUR® persulfate soil and groundwater remediation approach and best practices for evaluating effectiveness.

Brianna Desjardins and Brant Smith review the laboratory-scale testing that our Environmental Solutions Laboratory typically performs for EHC® Reagent, ELS® Microemulsion, KLOZUR® persulfate, METAFIX® Reagent, and hydrogen peroxide.

Evonik’s laboratory created the KLOZUR® field test kit to provide a quick and reliable measurement of persulfate in the field.

There are two different kits available, depending on the activation method used. Each kit is capable of running ten tests and has a measurement range of 1g/L to 100g/L, with a theoretical accuracy of ±1g/L and ±2g/L respectively.

Related documents on KLOZUR®

Further information