Case Studies


The KLOZUR® persulfate portfolio consists of several high quality environmental grade persulfate products used for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminants in soil and groundwater. Please find here our case studies on the brands KLOZUR® SP, ONE, KP and CR. 


In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and in situ stabilization (ISS) reagents applied in a single application to remediate a former industrial area in Sweden. 

This case study was presented at the 2023 Battelle Sediments Conference. 

The rail yard site in Nijmegen, Netherlands has been subject to contamination via leaks, spills, and filling losses of hydrocarbon fuels over the years. Despite previous remediation attempts there remained residual TPH contamination. Following a successful bench test, a full-scale remotely controlled injection unit was used for implementation of alkaline activated KLOZUR® persulfate. The reduction of the TPH levels achieved the remedial goals in both the bench and fieldwork.

The selected remedy, soil mixing using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) combined with in situ solidification and stabilization (ISS) was used to destroy contaminants while stabilizing soils.

Site closed following a single application of KLOZUR® SP and hydrated lime.

The approach was designed to remove the lower molecular weight compounds, which are the more soluble and mobile fraction of the contamination, via chemical oxidation while cementing the remaining higher molecular weight fraction of the tar in place. The addition of cement was also intended to activate the KLOZUR® SP by generating alkaline conditions, significantly improving the kinetics of the ISCO reactions.

ORIN successfully remediated the site by injecting KLOZUR® (sodium persulfate) and PERMEOX® Plus chemistry through a series of direct push points over a five-day period.

Specialty Earth Sciences, LLC was contracted to remediate a site that was impacted by residual coal tar by utilizing chemical oxidation methodologies.

EcoVac Services implemented SURFAC® and ISCO-EFR® at this site to remove SPH and reduce BTEX concentrations below the site’s CALs.

Hazardous soils at two former locations of a manufacturing facility were treated by ex situ chemical oxidation, in order to meet the treatment standards for a nearby landfill as a non-hazardous waste.

Specialty Earth Sciences, LLC was contracted to provide the rapid reduction of BTEX hydrocarbon mass present within impacted soils and groundwater at the site.

JAG Consulting Group, Inc., implemented a peroxide activated KLOZUR® (sodium persulfate) groundwater treatment at a UST site.

The ex situ chemical oxidation technology was implemented to reduce levels of PCE and TCE to below site-specific treatment standards.

ORIN successfully treated a 5,920 cubic yard drainage lagoon with an oxidizing chemistry to reduce contaminant concentrations.

MECX performed an in situ chemical oxidation application at a former chemical plant.

MECX performed the first active oxidant in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) application pilot test at a former chemical plant located in Trento, Italy.

Petroleum contaminated groundwater was treated using an enhanced bioremediation chemistry.

Treatment of shallow soil contamination using high pH activation of KLOZUR® persulfate at an active industrial site in Illinois, USA.

In situ soil mixing was the delivery tool for lime activated KLOZUR® persulfate for the in situ chemical oxidation of chlorobenzene contamination.

Treatment of a former manufacturing site contaminated with a mixture of chlorinated solvent VOCs and petroleum VOCs in the vadose soil zones and shallow groundwater.

Soils at an industrial facility in Norcross, Georgia, USA, were treated with KLOZUR® persulfate to remove PCE, daughter products and other chlorinated solvents. A 100 percent reduction of contaminant mass in soil and groundwater was obtained.

A two-year study evaluates the effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation technologies using activated KLOZUR® persulfate to remediate manufactured gas plant residuals.

Surfactant-enhanced ISCO was successfully implemented at a site in Queens, NY, contaminated with coal tar repurposed from a nearby MGP in a roofing manufacturing process. This process destroyed >90% of total targeted contaminants achieving the groundwater clean up objective.

XDD designed and implemented full-scale treatment of VOCs and PAH’s using alkaline activated KLOZUR® SP at the Mattoon Former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP). XDD used a combination of permanent injection wells installed along with temporary direct push injection wells to implement the ISCO treatment.

ORIN successfully remediated the site by injecting KLOZUR® (sodium persulfate) and PERMEOX® Plus chemistry through a series of direct push points over a five-day period.


Rapid results were required for the redevelopment of the site to a residential area. After 4 weeks of injecting KLOZUR® One through fixed wells, TCE concentrations were below remediation targets.


Alkaline activated KLOZUR® KP was used to treat a plume containing 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated ethanes using an injected permeable reactive barrier (PRB) design. Bench and field pilot test results indicated a greater than 99 percent reduction in groundwater concentrations often to below the detection limit.

The potential use of an oxidative permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was investigated as a means of cutting off and preventing downgradient migration of pentachlorophenol plume and other petroleum hydrocarbons and at a former wood treatment site. This approach resulted in up to 3 orders of magnitude of contaminant reduction.

Iron activated KLOZUR® KP was hydraulically placed over a 200 square meter area resulting in 99% treatment of target contaminants.


An in situ chemical oxidation treatment using KLOZUR® CR was completed to reduce contaminants caused by a petroleum release at a marina in the Savannah, Georgia area.

A former bulk fuel oil facility in New Albani, IN, contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) was sucessfully treated by chemical oxidation and aerobic remediation with KLOZUR® CR persulfate.

Three lines of evidence confirm contaminant degradation and identify novel microbial response as result of site treatment with KLOZUR® CR.

KLOZUR® CR, a combined remedial treatment technology consisting of KLOZUR® SP (sodium persulfate) and PERMEOX® Ultra (extended release calcium peroxide) was successfully applied at a site in a densely populated urban area in Bologna, Italy.

A historic release of gasoline affected an area of 1,550 square meters and a volume of 9,600 cubic meters of a sandy aquifer on the site of an active petroleum gasoline station in the coastal plain of Florida, USA. Coupled chemical oxidation and in situ biostimulation with KLOZUR® CR and PERMEOX® Plus were used to remediate the soil and groundwater.