Soil and groundwater remediation
Each site presents unique challenges.
Environmental protection

Soil and Groundwater Remediation

Field Proven Solutions and Experienced Technical Support

For over 20 years our products have been used to successfully treat thousands of sites around the globe. We understand that every site is unique, and our experienced team of environmental professionals can support clients from site assessment, to remedial design, field applications and post-application data evaluation.

Our portfolio of proven chemical oxidation, chemical reduction, metals treatment and bioremediation technologies promotes the rapid and cost-effective removal of a wide range of organic compounds and heavy metals. We continue to develop and offer several remediation technologies including ISCO, ISCR, bioremediation, metals treatment and stabilization. Learn more about our diverse portfolio of proven remediation technologies.

Our portfolio consists of: 

and promotes the rapid and cost-effective removal of a wide range of organic compounds and heavy metals. Please find our overview here:

Chemical oxidation

The Klozur® persulfate portfolio consists of several high quality, environmental grade persulfate products used for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminants in soil and groundwater.

Overview of the effects of the products for chemical oxidation

Product

Key Benefits

Potential Applications

Example
Contaminants

KLOZUR® CR

  • Self-activating persulfate oxidation
  • Generates powerful sulfate and hydroxyl radicals
  • Rapid in situ chemical oxidation
  • Extended oxygen release for up to one year
  • Enhanced aerobic bioremediation in down gradient plumes
  • No chemicals to mix
  • Direct push injection
  • Soil blending
  • Direct application in an excavation
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Petroleum
  • PAHs

KLOZUR® KP

  • Powerful multi-radical attack
  • Can be applied as a solid or as part of a slurry mixture
  • Well suited toward applications such as permeable reactive barriers
  • Extended lifetime in the subsurface
  • Physical emplacement or construction
  • Soil blending
  • Hydraulic slurry injection
  • Pneumatic solid phase injection
  • Chlorinated ethenes, ethanes and methanes
  • Petroleum hydrocarbons
  • Pesticides
  • Aqueous phase contaminants such as MTBE, vinyl chloride, BTEX, 1,4-dioxane

KLOZUR® One

  • Combined activator and KLOZUR® SP in a single product
  • Multiple activation pathways
  • Completely soluble
  • Trace permanganate provides visual indicator
  • Injection through constructed wells or direct push technology (DPT) rods
  • Soil mixing or blending
  • Amended to the base or fill for an excavation
  • Chlorinated ethenes
  • Petroleum hydrocarbons
  • BTEX

KLOZUR® SP

  • Self-activating persulfate oxidation
  • Generates powerful sulfate and hydroxyl radicals
  • Rapid in situ chemical oxidation
  • Extended oxygen release for up to one year
  • Enhanced aerobic bioremediation in down gradient plumes
  • No chemicals to mix
  • Direct push injection
  • Fixed well injection
  • Soil blending
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Petroleum
  • PAHs

Chemical reduction

EHC® ISCR Reagent is composed of controlled-release carbon, zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and nutrients used for the in situ treatment of groundwater and saturated soil impacted by heavy metals and persistent organic compounds such as chlorinated solvents, pesticides and energetics.

EHC® is composed of controlled-release carbon, zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and nutrients used for stimulating in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) of otherwise persistent organic compounds in groundwater.

Following placement of EHC® into the subsurface environment, a number of physical, chemical and microbiological processes combine to create very strong reducing conditions that stimulate rapid and complete dechlorination of organic solvents and other recalcitrant compounds (e.g., explosives and organochlorine pesticides).

EHC® Liquid ISCR reagent is a concentrated, buffered, microemulsion of a controlled-release, food-grade carbon, nutrients, and iron designed for on-site dilution with cold water.

It is a liquid variant of EHC® ISCR Reagent and is specially designed for injection via existing wells or hydraulic injection networks for the treatment of a wide range of groundwater contaminants.

EHC® Liquid Reagent is composed primarily of ELS® Microemulsion, a controlled-release organic carbon substrate and EHC® Liquid mix, an organo-ferrous compound (both food-grade). The anaerobic bioremediation processes and abiotic dechlorination reactions promoted by EHC® Liquid Reagent are effective at remediating chlorinated solvents, energetics, and pesticides/herbicides.

EHC® Plus is a combination of EHC® Reagent plus powdered activated carbon (PAC). This combined remedy approach can be used for the treatment of groundwater and saturated soil impacted by persistent halogenated compounds, including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and organic explosives.

EHC® Plus is a synergistic mixture that stimulates both abiotic and biotic de-chlorination mechanisms and provides an adsorption pathway to help to achieve low remedial goals for difficult to treat contaminants.

Daramend® Reagent represents a superior treatment technology for solid materials impacted by recalcitrant organic compounds. Since the first application in 1996, variations of the technology have been successfully used to treat >10,000,000 tons of soil, sediment and other solid materials.

Daramend® Reagent treats soils containing chlorinated herbicides and pesticides, organic explosive compounds, and chlorinated VOCs (CVOCs) at many sites throughout the world. The Daramend® technology is uniquely advantageous because it can often be applied without excavation; its implementation generates no odors or leachate; and it is typically applied at 1 to 3% (soil mass), so it does not result in soil bulking.

Overview of the effects of the products for Chemical Reduction

Product/Technology

Key Benefits

Key Functions

Example
Contaminants

EHC® ISCR Reagent
* In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) 

  • Stimulation of both abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination
  • Demonstrated longevity of 4-5 years in field conditions
  • Combined approach minimizes the production of problematic daughter products, such as DCE and VC
  • ZVI corrosion (alkaline) and fermenting carbon (acidic) are balanced producing circumneutral pHs in contrast to either alone
  • Non-hazardous and safe to handle
  • Direct push injection
  • Hydraulic fracturing
  • Pneumatic fracturing
  • Permeable reactive barriers
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Energetic compounds
  • Most pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate compounds

EHC® Liquid Reagent
* In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) 

  • Stimulation of both abiotic and biotic dechlorination mechanisms
  • Structurally bound nutrients phosphorous and nitrogen released to bacteria
  • Anticipated longevity of 2-3 yrs. depending on site conditions
  • Easy to handle and cold water soluble
  • Direct push injection
  • Gravity feed through existing wells
  • Low pressure injections
  • Recirculation systems
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Energetic compounds
  • Most pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate compounds
  • Chromium

EHC® Plus

  • Multiple and dynamic reaction pathways → abiotic, biotic and adsorption
  • Abiotic and biotic pathways destroy contaminants
  • Synergistic organic carbon and ZVI mixture create a reactive halo in the Downgradient Zone
  • Solid PAC stays in the injection zone and does not migrate with groundwater flow 
  • Direct push injection
  • Hydraulic fracturing
  • Pneumatic fracturing
  • Permeable reactive barriers
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Energetic compounds
  • Most pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate compounds

Daramend® Reagent
* In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) 

  • Improves soil health - tilth and fertility - reduces toxicity
  • Hydrophilic character increases soil water holding
  • Balanced range of nutrients
  • Promotes remediation of most persistent contaminants in soils
  • In situ landfarming
  • Shallow groundwater trench applications
  • Organic explosives
  • Chlorinated VOCs
  • Chlorinated pesticides

Aerobic Bioremediation

Terramend® aerobic bioremediation reagent is a cost effective treatment technology for soils impacted by organic compounds. The Terramend® technology is advantageous because it can often be applied without excavation, generates no odors or leachate, and does not result in soil bulking (1-3% soil mass application rates typical).

An independent audit conducted by the U.S. EPA concluded that the technology represented a safe, effective, and cost-efficient means of treating soils (US EPA/540/R-95/536 July, 1996).

Two Terramend® formulations are available and selected based on site conditions and targeted contaminants. Terramend® Carbon treats soils containing recalcitrant compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, and chlorophenols (including pentachlorophenol). Terramend® Inorganic treats biodegradable compounds, including BTEX, GRO, DRO, and TPH.

We will develop an appropriate dosing level and treatment approach for your site, based on contaminant mix, remedial goals and other site specific factors.

PermeOx® Ultra is a specially formulated grade of engineered calcium peroxide providing extended oxygen release for enhanced aerobic bioremediation. Containing at least 18% active oxygen, PermeOx® Ultra is available in a powdered and granular form.

Studies have shown that PermeOx® Ultra releases more oxygen into the subsurface environment over extended periods as compared to other soil remediation products. PermeOx® Ultra can continually release oxygen for over 350 days, thus providing a useful and cost-effective tool for enhancing the aerobic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and some non-halogenated organics. 

PermeOx® Ultra is formulated to contain ≥ 18% active oxygen, a measure of how much oxygen is available to be released. This compares favorably to the active oxygen levels found in typical calcium peroxide and magnesium peroxide based oxygen release products that are subject to lock up/encapsulation. This means that on a pound to pound basis, PermeOx® Ultra is able to deliver more oxygen.

PermeOx® Ultra powder and granulate

PermeOx® Ultra powder allows for a workable slurry for injections and does not set up.

PermeOx® Ultra Granular reduces dust hazards and material handling issues in the field.

Overview of the effects of the products for Aerobic Bioremediation

Product/Technology

Key Benefits

Key Functions

Example
Contaminants

Terramend® Reagent
*** Aerobic bioremediation

  • Hydrophilic character
  • Balanced range of nutrients
  • Improved ecology
  • Accelerated treatment
  • In situ landfarming
  • Ex situ treatment cells or windrows
  • Petroleum
  • Phthalates
  • Selected herbicides
  • Chlorophenols

PermeOx® Ultra and PermeOx® Ultra Granular
*** Aerobic bioremediation

  • Microbes use organic carbon (COC/COI) and oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor
  • Contains ≥18% active oxygen, higher than other grades of calcium peroxide
  • Releases oxygen for up to one year, the longest oxygen release profile of similar products in the market
  • Direct injections in the plume (slurry)
  • In a permeable reactive barrier (PRB)
  • Broadcast in open pit/excavation post UST and soil removal
  • BTEX
  • Petroleum hydrocarbons
  • Non-halogenated organics

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination

ELS® is a lecithin-based substrate of food-grade carbon used to enhance anaerobic bioremediation. ELS® is available as a 25% microemulsion or as a 100% concentrate.

ELS® is a lecithin-based substrate of food-grade carbon used to enhance anaerobic bioremediation. By creating reducing conditions and serving as an electron donor for dechlorinating bacteria, ELS® promotes enhanced reductive dechlorination reactions. ELS® is delivered as a either a 25% microemulsion or a 100% concentrate, that is cold water soluble and can be applied via existing wells, hydraulic injection networks or direct push technology.

Lecithin is composed primarily of phospholipids, which have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions in their molecular structure. As a result, ELS® can be expected to form a more stable emulsion compared to oils that are strictly hydrophobic compounds, making it easy to apply and handle.

Overview of the effects of the products for Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination

Product/Technology

Key Benefits

Key Functions

Example
Contaminants

ELS® Microemulsion and ELS® Concentrate
** Enhanced reductive dechlorination

  • Stimulation of biotic reductive dechlorination
  • Structurally bound nutrients phosphorous and nitrogen released to bacteria via the fermentation of the lecithin molecule
  • Forms stable emulsions
  • Easy to handle and cold water soluble
  • Direct push injection
  • Gravity feed through existing wells
  • Low pressure injections
  • Recirculation systems
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Energetic compounds
  • Most pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate compounds
  • Chromium

BIOGEOCHEMICAL

GeoForm Biogeochemical Reagents are engineered to deliver the building blocks needed to promote in situ biogeochemical reactions. GeoForm™ provides a source of sulfate, ferrous iron, electron donors, pH buffer and nutrients to promote mechanisms for dehalogenation via enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, abiotic degradation and the formation of reactive minerals.

The component ratios have been optimized to maximize the formation of reactive iron sulfide minerals that provide an expanded surface area for abiotic degradation pathways. In addition, the amount of electron donor can be adjusted based on site specific geochemistry. GeoForm™ can be used for the treatment of groundwater and saturated soil impacted by persistent halogenated compounds and will also immobilize many heavy metals.

GeoForm™ is available in two formulations – a fully soluble formulation for ease of injection and a solid formulation for extended release. 

GeoForm Soluble:

  • GeoForm™ Soluble Mix is a proprietary blend of sulfate and ferrous iron that when combined with ELS® organic carbon products generates reactive minerals in situ
  • Remains fully in solution during mixing and injection
  • Ideal for plume and hot-spot treatment 
  • Longevity of 2-3 years 
  • Application via injection wells, infiltration networks or direct push 

GeoForm Extended Release: 

  • Formulated with a long-lasting source of hydrogen donor and zero valent iron (ZVI) for continued rejuvenation of iron sulfide minerals 
  • Ideal for Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and source area treatment 
  • Longevity of 5-10 years 
  • Application via direct push, hydraulic or pneumatic fracturing or soil mixing  

 

Overview of the effects of the products for BIOGEOCHEMICAL

Product/Technology

Key Benefits

Key Functions

Example
Contaminants

GeoForm Reagents

  • Multiple mechanisms for contaminant degradation
  • Promotes higher reaction rates
  • Treats mixed plumes with CVOCs and heavy metals
  • Improved distribution properties / reactive surface area
  • Minimal generation of daughter products
  • Improved longevity
  • pH balanced

Soluble:

  • When combined with ELS® organic carbon products generation of reactive minerals in situ
  • Remains fully in solution during mixing and injection
  • Ideal for plume and hot-spot treatment 
  • Longevity of 2-3 years application via injection wells, infiltration networks or direct push

 Extended release: 

  • Continued rejuvenation of iron sulfide minerals 
  • Ideal for Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and source area treatment 
  • Longevity of 5-10 years 
  • Application via direct push, hydraulic or pneumatic fracturing or soil mixing 
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Energetic compounds
  • Most pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate compounds

Metals Treatment

MetaFix® Reagents are customized formulations of reducing agents, reactive minerals, mineral activators, catalysts and pH modifiers to cost effectively address heavy metals at even the most challenging sites. MetaFix® is capable of treating comingled plumes of multiple heavy metals and chlorinated solvents.

EHC® Metals Reagent is now a part of the MetaFix® portfolio of customizable reagents, allowing us to deliver robust solutions and provide more effective treatment of metals contaminated sites.

Following placement of MetaFix® into the treatment zone, a number of physical and chemical processes combine to create geochemical conditions under which common heavy metals are subjected to reduction, adsorption, precipitation, and conversion to stable sulfide and iron-sulfide precipitates.

These heavy metal sulfide precipitates have greater stability than metal hydroxide precipitates that are formed with traditional metals treatment approaches based on pH adjustment. A custom MetaFix® blend is developed based on a site’s specific conditions through a low-cost treatability study to address soil and/or groundwater impacts.

Overview of the effects of the products for Metals Treatment

Product/Technology

Key Benefits

Key Functions

Example
Contaminants

MetaFix® Reagents

  • Not dependent on alkalinity for removal of metals
  • Capability of treating comingled plumes
  • Low overall treatment costs
  • Direct push injection
  • Hydraulic and pneumatic fracturing
  • Soil mixing
  • Heavy metals such as AI, Cu and Zn
  • Chlorinated solvents

NAPL Stabilization / Mass Flux Reduction

ISGS® remediation technology utilizes a permanganate-based solution to geochemically stabilize dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in the aquifer.

Permanganate and other proprietary reagents are selected depending upon the particular characteristics of each location and custom mixed on site into an aqueous solution that can be injected into an aquifer either through existing wells or direct push technology.

As the solution migrates through the treatment area it oxidizes contaminants yielding partial mass removal. The ISGS® technology also reacts with contaminants in the treated area thereby coating NAPL surfaces with stable mineral precipitates that reduce mass flux.

Overview of the effects of the products for NAPL Stabilization / Mass Flux Reduction

Product/Technology

Key Benefits

Key Functions

Example Contaminants

ISGS® Technology
**** In situ stabilization

  • Prevents contaminants from leaching into environment
  • Application and treatment can be done in situ
  • Can be more cost effective and efficient than conventional cement stabilization
  • Fixed well injections
  • Direct push injections
  • PAHs
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Creosote

Description of various technologies

In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is the combination of abiotic chemical reduction, using zero valent iron(ZVI) and/or reduced minerals (magnetite, pyrite), coupled with anaerobic bioremediation for the effective treatment of chlorinated solvents, pesticides, and energetics. Physical, chemical, and biological processes combine to create an extremely reduced environment that stimulates chemical and microbiological dechlorination of otherwise persistent compounds.

** Anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents involves the use of the contaminants as the terminal electron acceptor (respiratory substrate) i.e. instead of oxygen, nitrate, sulfate etc. This process could be enhanced by the addition of organic carbon, which serves as an electron donor. The addition of organic carbon to the subsurface will support the growth of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria in the groundwater environment. As the bacteria feed on the carbon, the bacteria consume dissolved oxygen and other electron acceptors, thereby reducing the redox potential in groundwater creating conditions favorable for reductive dechlorination to occur. Furthermore, as the bacteria ferment the organic carbon, they release a variety of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as lactic, propionic and butyric acids, which diffuse from the site of fermentation into the groundwater plume and serve as electron donors for other bacteria including dehalogenators and halorespiring species.

*** Aerobic bioremediation is the addition of oxygen and nutrients to accelerate naturally occurring bioremediation through natural biological processes. The process helps facilitate the conversion of biodegradable compounds to CO2 and H2O.

**** When released into the environment, chlorinated solvents, coal tar, creosote, and heavy crude oil are frequently present as DNAPL and represent a long term secondary source of contamination. Physical removal or in situ remediation of DNAPL is not always practicable due to the depth of contamination, aquifer geology, the presence of physical surface structures, or other factors making hydraulic containment (e.g., long-term pump-and-treat) or in situ stabilization the only viable remedial action. The process of In Situ Stabilization prevents or slows harmful chemicals from contaminated soil, sediment and sludge, from leaching into the environment. The contaminants are chemically immobilized under ground making them less likely to be released into the environment.

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